Syllogism Cheat Sheet

Dealing with syllogism had always been a big problem to me. Even if I do learn it how to deal with it, I often forget how to use them when required, I guess it needs constant revision and great logical and deductive reasoning capabilities to deal with.

Logical deductions

To make things easier, I keep this small cheat sheet which contain basic formulas to deal with syllogism in verbal reasoning. I will try to explain here, how to use this cheat sheet to solve the problems which often appears in competitive exams like CAT, XAT, IIFT, and nowadays even CSAT and other job oriented exams are also looking for reasoning capabilities in candidate.


First Premise Second Premise Conclusion
All All All
All No No
All Some No Conclusion
Some All Some
Some No Some Not
Some Some No Conclusion
No All “Some Not” – Reversed
No Some “Some Not” – Reversed
No No No Conclusion
“Some Not” or “Some Not” – Reversed Anything No Conclusion


You can use above table for your reference while solving problem on syllogism. Here is an example for same-

[Q] Premise Statements-
[a]. All cities are town.
[b]. Some cities are villages.
Conclusion Options-
[i]. All villages are town.
[ii]. No village is a town.
[iii]. Some villages are town.

Answer Options –

  1. Only conclusion [i] follows.
  2. Only conclusion [ii] follows.
  3. Only conclusion [iii] follows.
  4. None of these.

This is clearly a combination of All + Some in premise statements. Hence no conclusion can be drawn. So, option 4 is correct. None of these.

I had took this question from Combined Graduate Level Exam conducted by SSC in 2013, questions like this could be a matter of 2 or 3 seconds if you can remember this table. Here is another quick example of how to use this cheat sheet.

[Q] Premise Statements
(a). All papers are books.
(b). All books are pages
(c). All pages are material.
Conclusions Options:
I. Some material are pages.
II. All books are material.
III. All papers are pages.
IV. Some books are papers.

Answer Options –

  1. All the four follow.
  2. Only II, III follow.
  3. Only I, III and IV follow.
  4. Either I or III and II follow.
  5. None follows

This one is a bit tricky question. While it seems All + All = All, should give us II & III as correct statements, but we should also look what other statements are telling us. Conclusion statement I & IV are mere implications of premise statement (a) and (c). Hence the correct answer option is [1.] All the four follows.

And last but not the least, a very simple problem, which would generally come in medium difficulty level exam-

[Q]. Premise Statements-
Statement 1. Some dogs are bats.
Statement 2. All bats are cats.

You probably don’t need options for problem like this one, as you can refer the table above, which says Some + All = Some. So, cancelling out bats, we get Some dogs are cats as our answer statement…

There are plenty of various types of questions which one can practice based on Syllogism and deductive reasoning these generally include conditional statements, possibility cases, premise – conclusion etc. Sometimes conventional way of using Venn Diagram might help in solving Syllogism but not always a good practice in competitive exams. It would always be better if you could remember the various possibility cases, and arrive to conclusion in seconds instead of working out a problem in minutes. An advanced level cheat sheet for syllogism is available here.

Use Wi-Fi Adhoc Network in Windows 8

imgI guess, by default Windows 8 does not provide a good way to use Ad Hoc network for local file sharing and LAN gameplay between two computers. I big Pocket Tanks fan, so I need to use the LAN gameplay feature. This lead me into discovering a way to use Wi-Fi Adhoc network in Windows 8. The steps involved are pretty simple. Here I am sharing two ways to achieve this in your Windows 8 computer.

The Geeky Way

Paste the following code into notepad.

@echo off
CLS

:checkPrivileges
NET FILE 1>NUL 2>NUL
if ‘%errorlevel%’ == ‘0’ ( goto gotPrivileges ) else ( goto getPrivileges )

:getPrivileges
if ‘%1’==’ELEV’ (shift & goto gotPrivileges) 

setlocal DisableDelayedExpansion
set “batchPath=%~0”
setlocal EnableDelayedExpansion
ECHO Set UAC = CreateObject^(“Shell.Application”^) > “%temp%OEgetPrivileges.vbs”
ECHO UAC.ShellExecute “!batchPath!”, “ELEV”, “”, “runas”, 1 >> “%temp%OEgetPrivileges.vbs”
“%temp%OEgetPrivileges.vbs”
exit /B

:gotPrivileges
setlocal & pushd .

REM Run shell as admin (example) – put here code as you like
ECHO.
ECHO ============================
ECHO Setting up Adhoc Network …
ECHO ============================
netsh wlan set hostednetwork mode=allow ssid=LocalAdHoc key=password
netsh wlan start hostednetwork
ECHO Use “netsh wlan stop hostednetwork” command to stop LocalAdHoc Network.
cmd /

Save this file as any name you want with extension “cmd”. Like I saved it as AdHoc.cmd [You can download this file here.]

If you are keen enough to know how this code works, its simple. First few lines of code generates a visual basic script to get administrator privileges in temporary files folder of Windows and then last few lines does the actual work. Notice the SSID in Red colour and Password in Green colour. You can change this as per your requirement.

To use this, just double click the cmd file you created, and now anyone can connect to you using the password as above.

Noob’s Way

If you don’t want look above, straightaway download this file and double click. Network name is “LocalAdHoc” and Password is “password”.

Download

Note: – If you still get any problems while connecting to LAN in Windows 8, check your IP settings are correct and all PCs are in same subnet or not.

GoDaddy .com domain name cheapest

If you are looking forward to buy a .com domain name, then here is an irresistible offer from best domain selling company “Go Daddy”. Now, you can buy .com domain name for just Rs. 163 Use the link below to get com domain at discounted rate.

http://in.godaddy.com/deals/?isc=gtnggmin01&currencytype=INRimg

Please note that you can use this offer for your purchase of domain for one year only. Adding more years will make charges normal for number of years additional to 1 year.

3 Must have Android Application for making your PC an Ultraportable device

If you are a lazy person just like I am, and  want to do all your work on laptop or your desktop without reaching out to it. Here I show you some of the best Android applications which will provide you the true portability of your PCs capabilities in mobile phone. You just need to keep your PC on and connected to mobile device, by using any of following methods

  • Use same router for Wi-Fi connection
  • Use in-built Wi-Fi Tethering or any application for same in your android phone.
  • Use Wi-Fi Ad-Hoc network of your PC

Jump Desktop

Lets start with an application which you need to get your PC screen, keyboard and mouse controls in your mobile. Jump Desktop is a VNC client which shows up your screen and you can remotely control your PC. You need to have a VNC server installed to run this on your mobile and to control things on your PC. The VNC server which I use on my PC for this purpose is TightVNC.

2013-04-07_16-30-19

AirDroid

But as with any other VNC, it lacks the ability for file transfer. So, to get around this issue I use AirDroid. This is free software which provides capability of to and fro file transfer, remote application installation and more. If you have less memory or your phone doesn’t support this software, then you can go with having an FTP server in your Phone. Using this you can add/remove or delete your files wirelessly. You don’t need anything to be installed in your PC for using either of these two.

2013-04-07_16-30-502013-04-07_16-30-56

2013-04-07_16-31-252013-04-07_16-32-03

Unified Remote

Sometimes, you may need to present PowerPoint shows, or remotely control your media player. You may use VNC client for this purpose as well, but most of those are not free. So, a good alternative is using Unified remote. You can control almost everything from your phone using this software, but you can not see the screencast of your PC. It also needs a server to be installed on your PC to work.

2013-04-07_17-10-00